# The British Columbia Building Code | Notes to Part 4 | Structural Design Pt 1

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

Notes to Part 4

Structural Design

A-4.1.1.3.(1) Structural Integrity. The requirements of Part 4, including the CSAdesign standards, generally provide a

satisfactory level of structural integrity. Additional considerations may, however, be required for building systems made of components

of different materials, whose interconnection is not covered by existing CSAdesign standards, buildings outside the scope of existing

CSAdesign standards, and buildings exposed to severe accidental loads such as vehicle impact or explosion. Furtherguidance can be

found in the Commentary entitled Structural Integrity in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.1.3.(2) Serviceability. Information on serviceability can be found in the Commentary entitled Deflection and

Vibration Criteria for Serviceability and Fatigue Limit States in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.1.5.(2) Structural Equivalents. Sentence4.1.1.5.(2) provides for the use of design methods not specified in Part 4,

including full-scale testing and model analogues. This provision is usually used to permit the acceptance of new and innovative

structures or to permit the acceptance of model tests such as those used to determine structural behaviour, or snow or wind loads.

Sentence4.1.1.5.(2) specifically requires that the level of safety and performance be at least equivalent to that provided by design to

Part 4 and requires that loads and designs conform to Section4.1.

Sentence4.1.1.5.(2) and the provision for alternative solutions stated in Clause1.2.1.1.(1)(b)of DivisionA are not intended to allow

structural design using design standards other than those listed in Part4. The acceptance of structures that have been designed to other

design standards would require the designer to prove to the appropriate authority that the structure provides the level of safety and

performance required by Clause1.2.1.1.(1)(b)of DivisionA. The equivalence of safety and performance can only be established by

analyzing the structure for the loads and load factors set out in Section4.1. and by demonstrating that the structure at least meets the

requirements of the design standards listed in Sections4.3. and4.4.

A-4.1.2.1. Loads and Effects. Information on the definitions can be found in the Commentary entitled Limit States Design

in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.2.1.(1) Temperature Changes. Information on effects due to temperature changes can be found in the Commentary

entitled Effects of Deformations in Building Components in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.2.1.(3) Major Occupancies. In a building containing more than one major occupancy and classified in more than one

Importance Category, the classification of each independent structural system shall be the same as for any part of the building that is

dependent on that structural system and for the highest usage group according to Table4.1.2.1.

A-Table 4.1.2.1. Importance Categories for Buildings.

Low Importance Category Buildings

Low human-occupancy farm buildings are defined in the National Farm Building Code of Canada 1995 as having an occupant

load of 1 person or less per 40 m

2

of floor area. Minor storage buildings include only those storage buildings that represent a

low direct or indirect hazard to human life in the event of structural failure, either because people are unlikely to be affected

by structural failure, or because structural failure causing damage to materials or equipment does not present a direct threat to

human life.

Buildings Containing Hazardous Materials

The following buildings contain sufficient quantities of toxic, explosive or other hazardous substances to be classified in the

High Importance Category of use and occupancy:

• petrochemical facilities,

• fuel storage facilities (other than those required for post-disaster use), and

• manufacturing or storage facilities for dangerous goods.

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

The following types of buildings may be classified in the Normal Importance Category: buildings that are equipped with

secondary containment of toxic, explosive or other hazardous substances, including but not limited to, double-wall tanks, dikes of

sufficient size to contain a spill, or other means to contain a spill or a blast within the property boundary of the facility and

prevent the release of harmful quantities of contaminants to the air, soil, groundwater, surface water or atmosphere, as the case

may be.

A-4.1.3. Limit States Design. Information on limit states design can be found in the Commentary entitled Limit States

Design in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.3.2.(2) Load Combinations.

Load Combination Equations

The load combinations in Tables4.1.3.2.-A and4.1.3.2.-B apply to most situations for loadbearing building structures.

Guidance on special situations such as load combinations for fire resistance and building envelopes is given in the Commentary

entitled Limit States Design in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

Load Cases and Crane Load Effects

The load combinations in Table4.1.3.2.-A are to be evaluated for structures with crane load effects for the scenario where the

crane loads are zero, and for structures without crane loads. The load combinations in Table4.1.3.2.-B are to be evaluated for

structures with crane loads for the scenario where the crane load effects are other than zero.

Crane Loads

Crane-supporting structures that have cranes in multiple parallel bays should be designed for the maximum vertical crane load

with the cranes positioned for the most critical effect in conjunction with a lateral load with each crane in turn positioned for the

most critical effect. For load combinations that include crane loads, additional guidance can be found in CISC/ICCA 2013,

“Crane-Supporting Steel Structures: Design Guide.”

A-4.1.3.2.(4) Effects of Lateral Earth Pressure, H, Pre-stress, P, and Imposed Deformation, T, in Design

Calculations.

Effects of Lateral Earth Pressure, H, in Design Calculations

For common building structures below ground level, such as walls, columns and frames, 1.5 H is added to load combinations

2 to 4. For cantilever retaining wall structures, see the Commentary entitled Limit States Design in the “User’s Guide –

NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

Effects of Pre-stress, P, and Imposed Deformation, T, in Design Calculations

For structures and building envelopes designed in accordance with the requirements specified in the standards listed in

Section4.3., with the exception of Clauses 8 and 18 of CSAA23.3, “Design of Concrete Structures,” P and T need not be

included in the load combinations of Table4.1.3.2.-A. For structures not within the scope of the standards listed in Section4.3.,

including building envelopes, P and T must be taken into account in the design calculations. For recommended load

combinations including T, see the Commentary entitled Limit States Design in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.3.2.(5) Overturning, Uplift or Sliding. Information on overturning, uplift and sliding can be found in the

Commentary entitled Limit States Design in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.3.3.(1) Failure due to Fatigue. Failure due to fatigue of building structures referred to in Section4.3. and designed for

serviceability in accordance with Article4.1.3.6. is, in general, unlikely except for girders supporting heavily used cranes, on which

Article4.1.5.11. provides guidance.

A-4.1.3.3.(2) Vibration Effects. Guidance on vibration effects can be found in the Commentary entitled Deflection and

Vibration Criteria for Serviceability and Fatigue Limit States in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

A-4.1.3.4.(1) Loads and Load Combinations for Serviceability. The loads and load combinations for serviceability

depend on the serviceability limit states and on the properties of the structural materials. Information on loads and load combinations

for the serviceability limit states, other than those controlled by deflection, can be found in the Commentary entitled Deflection and

Vibration Criteria for Serviceability and Fatigue Limit States in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.3.5.(1) Deflections. Serviceability criteria for deflections that cause damage to non-structural building components can

be found in the standards listed in Section4.3. Information on deflections can be found in the Commentary entitled Deflection and

Vibration Criteria for Serviceability and Fatigue Limit States in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).” Information on loads and load combinations for calculating deflection can be found in the Commentary entitled Limit

States Design in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.3.5.(3) Lateral Deflection of Buildings. The limitation of 1/500 drift per storey may be exceeded if it can be

established that the drift as calculated will not result in damage to non-structural elements. Information on lateral deflection can be

found in the Commentary entitled Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.3.6.(1) Floor Vibration. Information on floor vibration can be found in the Commentary entitled Deflection and

Division B).” Information on loads and load combinations for the calculation of vibration can be found in the Commentary entitled

Limit States Design in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.3.6.(2) Dynamic Analyses of Floor Vibrations. Information on a dynamic analysis of floor vibrations from

rhythmic activities can be found in the Commentary entitled Deflection and Vibration Criteria for Serviceability and Fatigue Limit

States in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.3.6.(3) Lateral Vibration Under Wind Load. Information on lateral vibrations and accelerations under dynamic

wind loads can be found in the Commentary entitled Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.4.1.(6) Counteracting Dead Load Due to Soil. Examples of structures that traditionally employ the dead load of

soil to resist loadings are pylon signs, tower structures, retaining walls, and deadmen, which resist wind uplift and overturning in

light structures.

A-4.1.5.1.(1) Loads Due to Use of Floors and Roofs. In many areas of buildings, such as equipment areas, service rooms,

factories, storage areas, warehouses, museums, and office filing areas, live loads due to their intended use may exceed the minimum

specified loads listed in Table4.1.5.3. In these instances, the probable live load shall be calculated and used as the specified live load for

the design of that particular area.

A-Table 4.1.5.3. Considerations for Live Loads.

Arenas, Grandstands and Stadia

The designer should give special consideration to the effects of vibration.

Attics – Limited Accessibility

Attic live loading is not required when the ceiling below the attic consists of removable panels that permit access to the ceiling

space without loading the ceiling supporting members. Attic live loading is not required in any area of the attic where the least

dimension of the attic space is less than 500 mm.

Corridors, Aisles and Rows of Seats

The spaces between rows of seats are typically designed for the loads of the occupancy they serve. Rows of seats typically discharge

into aisles that are designed for the loads used for the rows of seats. Corridors have a minimum width of 1100 mm and may serve

as collectors for aisles; they are therefore part of the exit system and are required to be designed for a minimum live load of

4.8 kPa.

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

Floor Areas That Could Be Used As Viewing Areas

Some interior balconies, mezzanines, corridors, lobbies and aisles that are not intended to be used by an assembly of people as

viewing areas are sometimes used as such; consequently, they are subject to loadings much higher than those for the occupancies

they serve. Floor areas that may be subject to such higher loads must, therefore, be designed for a loading of 4.8 kPa.

Lecture Halls and Classrooms

For the purposes of applying the requirements of Table4.1.5.3., lecture halls with fixed seats are similar to theatres in

configuration (the seats may have a writing tablet affixed to one arm). Classrooms are typically furnished with full-sized desks

having separate or integrated seats.

Minimum Roof Live Load

Articles4.1.5.3. and4.1.5.9. stipulate a minimum uniform roof live load of 1.0kPa and a minimum concentrated live load of

1.3kN. These live loads are “use and occupancy loads” intended to provide for maintenance loadings: they are not reduced as a

function of area or as a function of the roof slope due to their variability in distribution and location.

Vehicle Loads

A special study should be undertaken to determine the distributed loads to be used for the design of floors and areas used by

vehicles exceeding 9 000 kg gross weight and of driveways and sidewalks over areaways and basements. Where appropriate,

the designer should refer to CSAS6, “Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code.”

A-4.1.5.5. Loads on Exterior Areas. In Article4.1.5.5., “accessible” refers to the lack of a physical barrier that prevents or

restricts access by vehicles or persons to the site in the context of the specific use.

A-4.1.5.8. Tributary Area. Information on tributary area can be found in the Commentary entitled Live Loads in the “User’s

Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-Table 4.1.5.9. Loads Due to Concentrations. Special study is required to determine concentrated loads for the design

of floors and areas used by vehicles exceeding 9 000 kg gross weight, and of driveways and sidewalks over areaways and basements.

Where appropriate the designer should refer to CSAS6, “Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code.”

A-4.1.5.11. Crane-Supporting Structures. Guidance on crane-supporting structures can be found in CSAS16, “Design of

Steel Structures.”

A-4.1.5.14. and 4.1.5.15.(1) Design of Guards. In the design of guards, due consideration should be given to the durability

of the members and their connections.

A-4.1.5.17. Loads on Firewalls. Information on loads on firewalls can be found in the Commentary entitled Structural

Integrity of Firewalls in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.6.2. Coefficients for Snow Loads on Roofs. Information on coefficients for snow loads on roofs can be found in

the Commentary entitled Snow Loads in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

A-4.1.6.2.(2) Basic Roof Snow Load Factor. FigureA-4.1.6.2.(2) shows the basic roof snow load factor, C

b

, plotted

against .

Figure A-4.1.6.2.(2)

Basic roof snow load factor, C

b

A-4.1.6.3.(2) Full and Partial Loading under Snow Loads. Information on full and partial snow loading on roofs can be

found in the Commentary entitled Snow Loads in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.6.4.(1) Rain Loads. Information on rain loads can be found in the Commentary entitled Rain Loads in the “User’s

Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.6.4.(3) Flow Control Drains. Book II (Plumbing Services) of this code contains requirements regarding the use of flow

control roof drains. The designer must ensure that the building complies with both Book I and Book II of the British Columbia

Building Code.

A-4.1.6.7.(1) Roof Projections. Elevator, air-conditioning and fan housings, small penthouses and wide chimneys are

examples of roof projections.

Figure A-4.1.6.7.(1)

Roof projections

A-4.1.6.7.(2) Values of C

a

for Small Roof Projections. Calculating C

a

in accordance with Article4.1.6.5. rather than

Sentence4.1.6.7.(1) results in lower values for small projections.

1000 200 300 400 500 600

2.20

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

0.80

C

b

C

w

= 1.0

C

w

= 0.75

C

w

= 0.5

EG01300A

2

I

c

C

w

EG01303B

h

x

l

0

C

a0

Roof Projection

Drift

xd = l

0

2

3

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

A-4.1.6.9. Snow on Gable Roofs.

Figure A-4.1.6.9.

Load cases for gable roofs

Notes to Figure A-4.1.6.9.:

(1) Case II loading does not apply to gable roofs with slopes of 15° or less, to single-sloped (shed) roofs, or to flat roofs.

(2) The value of C

w

for load case I is as prescribed in Sentences 4.1.6.2.(3) and (4).

(3) Varies as a function of slope, α, as defined in Sentences 4.1.6.2.(5) and (6).

A-4.1.7.1.(6) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It is not currently possible to verify the reliability and accuracy of

CFD and no standards address it; as such, this method is not permitted to be used to determine specified wind loads.

A-4.1.7.2.(1) and (2) Natural Frequency. Information on calculating the natural frequency of a building can be found in

the Commentary entitled Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.7.3.(5)(c) Procedure for Calculating Intermediate C

e

. Information on calculating intermediate values of C

e

between two exposures can be found in the Commentary entitled Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015,

Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.7.3.(10) Internal Gust Effect Factor, C

gi

. The effect of building envelope flexibility can be included in the

calculation of C

gi

. See the Commentary entitled Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries

(Part 4 of Division B).”

EG01306B

Wind

(2)

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.25

I

II

(1)

Load

Case

Roof

Slope, α

C

w

C

s

0° ≤ α ≤ 90°

15° < α ≤ 20°

20° < α ≤ 90°

f(α)

(3)

f(α)

(3)

0.25 + α/20

C

a

on

upwind side

C

a

on

downwind side

Factors

1. 0

0.0

0.0

α

Case I

Case II

Upwind

Side

Downwind

Side

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

A-4.1.7.5.(2) and (3) Pressure Coefficients for Main Structural System on Rectangular Buildings.

Figure A-4.1.7.5.(2) and (3)

Values of C

p

for main structural system on rectangular buildings

W

D

H

C

e

C

p

C

e

C

p

C

e

C

p

X

Plan View of Building

Elevation View of Building

On side walls

On leeward face

Wind

Wind

C

e

= C

e

(H)

C

p

=

−0.7

C

e

= C

e

(H/2)

C

p

=

−0.3 for < 0.25

C

p

=

−0.5 for ≥ 1.0

Z

C

e

C

p

C

e

C

p

H

D

C

p

=

−0.27

(

+ 0.88

)

H

D

H

D

H

D

On windward face

C

e

= C

e

(Z)

C

p

=

0.6 for < 0.25

C

p

=

0.8 for ≥ 1.0

H

D

C

p

=

0.27

(

+ 2

)

H

D

H

D

H

D

On roof

C

e

= C

e

(H)

C

p

=

−1.0 for ≥ 1.0

C

p

=

−0.5 for x > H

H

D

C

p

=

−1.0 for x ≤ H

H

D

< 1.0

}

for 0.25 ≤ < 1.0

for 0.25 ≤ < 1.0

EG01398A

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

A-4.1.7.5.(4) Pressure coefficients for roof and wall claddings and secondary structural supports of

cladding on rectangular buildings.

Figure A-4.1.7.5.(4)

Values of C

p

for roof and wall claddings and secondary structural supports of cladding on rectangular buildings

Notes to Figure A-4.1.7.5.(4):

(1) The larger of W or D is to be used.

(2) Where vertical ribs deeper than 1 m are present on the walls, the dimensions 0.1D and 0.1W must be changed to 0.2D and 0.2W and the

negative value of C

p

must be changed from -1.2 to -1.4.

A-4.1.7.8.(2) and (3) Exposure Factor for Dynamic Procedure.

Figure A-4.1.7.8.(2) and (3)

Exposure factor, C

e

, for dynamic procedure

Notes to Figure A-4.1.7.8.(2) and (3):

(1) Curve A represents C

e

for open terrain, as defined in Clause 4.1.7.3.(5)(a).

(2) Curve B represents C

e

for rough terrain, as defined in Clause 4.1.7.3.(5)(b).

D

D

H

W

Z

0.1(W or D)

(1)

0.1(W or D)

(1)

0.2(W or D)

(1)

0.2(W or D)

(1)

0.1(W or D)

(1)

C

p

= ±0.9

C

p

= –1.0

C

p

= +0.9 and –1.2

(2)

C

p

= –2.3

C

p

= –1.5

Elevation View of Building Plan View of Building

EG01352A

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

10

20

30

40

50

60

80

100

200

300

400

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.8

Exposure factor, C

e

Height above ground, m

A

EG00914C

12

34

56 810

B

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

A-4.1.7.8.(4) Peak Factor, Size Reduction Factor and Gust Energy Ratio.

Figure A-4.1.7.8.(4)-A

Peak factor, g

p

Figure A-4.1.7.8.(4)-B

Size reduction factor, s

0.02 0.04

0.06

0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Average Fluctuation Rate, ν cycles/second

Peak Factor, g

p

6.0

0.577

2 ln(νT)

2 ln(νT)

+

g

p

=

T = 3600 s

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

2 4

EG00919C

0.001 0.002 0.004 0.007 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.05 0. 10 .2 0. 30 .5 1. 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.7

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

8f

n

H

3V

H

s =

1 +

1

π

3

10f

n

w

V

H

1 +

1

1.0

w/H = 2.0

0.5

0.2

0.1

Reduced Frequency, f

n

0

H

V

H

Size Reduction Factor, s

EG00917B

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

Figure A-4.1.7.8.(4)-C

Gust energy ratio, F

A-4.1.7.9.(1) Full and Partial Wind Loading. Information on full and partial loading under wind loads can be found in the

Commentary entitled Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

Figure A-4.1.7.9.(1)

Full and partial wind loading

A-4.1.7.11. Exterior Ornamentations, Equipment and Appendages. Appendages may increase the overall forces in

the design of the building structure and need to be accounted for.

A-4.1.8.2.(1) Notation.

Definition of e

x

Information on the calculation of torsional moments can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the

“User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

EG00942B

Case A: full wind pressure applied in

both directions separately

p

W

p

L

or

p

W

Case B: Case A wind pressure applied

only on parts of wall faces

p

W

p

L

or

p

W

p

L

p

L

Case C: 75% of full wind pressure applied

in both directions simultaneously

Case D: 50% of Case C wind load removed

from part of projected area

0.75p

W

0.75p

L

0.75p

W

0.75p

L

0.75p

W

0.75p

L

0.75p

W

0.75p

L

0.38p

W

0.38p

W

0.38p

L

0.38p

L

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

Definition of W

Information on the definition of dead load, W, can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the

“User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.3.(4) General Design of the SFRS. Information on the general design requirements for the SFRS can be found in

the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC 2015, Structural Commentaries (Part 4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.8.3.(6) General Design of Stiff Elements. Information on the general design requirements for stiff elements can be

found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of

DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.3.(7)(b) and (c) Stiffness Imparted to the Structure from Elements Not Part of the SFRS. Information

on stiffness imparted to the structure from elements not part of the SFRS can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic

Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.3.(8) Structural Modelling. Information on structural modelling can be found in the Commentary entitled Design

for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.4.(3) and Table 4.1.8.4.-A Site Class. Information on Site Class can be found in the Commentary entitled Design

for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-Table 4.1.8.5. Serviceability Limit States for Earthquake. Information on serviceability limit states for earthquake

can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries

(Part4 of Division B).”

A-Table 4.1.8.6. Structural Irregularities.

Structural Irregularities

Information on structural irregularities can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s

Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

Gravity-Induced Lateral Demand – Type 9 Irregularity

Uncoupled concrete and masonry shear walls where a large fraction of the overturning resistance is provided by axial compression,

rather than through yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement, are less susceptible to amplified displacements due to

gravity-induced lateral demands because the axial loads have a self-centering effect on the shear walls. Walls that are stronger than

the foundation and other systems such as coupled walls, braced frames, and moment frames are more susceptible to amplified

displacements due to gravity-induced lateral demands. A lower limit on is thus specified for such systems. Further information

on the impacts of gravity-induced lateral demands on the seismic response of buildings can be found in the Commentary entitled

Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.7.(1) Dynamic Analysis Procedures. Information on dynamic analysis procedures can be found in the

Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-Table 4.1.8.9. Industrial-Type Steel Structures. Guidance on the height limits, system restrictions and additional

analysis and design requirements for steel SFRSs in industrial-type structures, intended essentially to support equipment, tanks or an

industrial process, can be found in Annex M, Seismic Design of Industrial Steel Structures, of CSAS16, “Design of Steel Structures.”

A-4.1.8.9.(4) Vertical Variations in R

d

R

o

. Information on vertical variations in R

d

R

o

can be found in the Commentary

entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.9.(5) R

d

R

o

and Equivalent Systems. Information on the R

d

R

o

of equivalent systems can be found in the

Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.10.(4) and (5)

Mid-rise Timber SFRS. Information on structural irregularities in mid-rise wood construction and

on how to determine the number of storeys for application in Sentences

4.1.8.10.(4) and (5) can be found in the Commentary entitled

Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

A-4.1.8.10.(5) Gravity-Induced Lateral Demand – Type 9 Irregularity. Structural systems that include components

such as inclined columns or horizontal floor cantilevers can induce lateral force demands on the SFRS under gravity loads.

Buildings with such gravity-induced lateral demands on the SFRS are more likely to experience severe damage during strong ground

shaking due to their tendency to drift only in one direction, leading to large residual displacements or instability. To determine if a

building is susceptible to amplification of displacements due to gravity-induced lateral demands, the lateral resistance of the yielding

mechanism to resist earthquake forces alone, Q

y

, must be compared with the gravity-induced lateral demand, Q

G

, at the same location.

Theforce component selected for this comparison depends on the yielding mechanism for the SFRS. For example, for a coupled wall,

the overturning moment resistance at the level of the expected plastic hinges should be compared with the overturning moment

demand (at the same level) due to gravity loads alone, whereas for a steel-braced frame, the storey shear at the critical level of the

yielding system should be compared with the storey shear demand (at the same level) due to the gravity loads alone. If the

gravity-induced lateral demands exceed the limits prescribed in Sentence4.1.8.10.(7), amplifications in seismic displacements due to

gravity-induced lateral demands can only be identified through non-linear dynamic analyses using models that adequately represent

the hysteretic behaviour of the SFRS. Further information on the impacts of gravity-induced lateral demands on the seismic response

of buildings can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.10.(7) Gravity-Induced Lateral Demand – Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis. Information on non-linear

dynamic analysis can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.11.(3) Determination of the Fundamental Period, T

a

. Information on the determination of the fundamental

period, T

a

, can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.12.(1)(a) Linear Dynamic Analysis. Information on Linear Dynamic Analysis can be found in the Commentary

entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.12.(1)(b) Non-linear Dynamic Analysis. Information on Non-linear Dynamic Analysis can be found in the

Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.12.(3) Ground Motion Histories. Information on ground motion histories can be found in the Commentary

entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.12.(4)(a) Accidental Torsional Moments. Information on accidental torsional moments can be found in the

A-4.1.8.13.(4) Deflections and Sway Effects. Information on deflections and sway effects can be found in the

A-4.1.8.15.(1) Diaphragms and their Connections. Information on diaphragms and their connections can be found in

the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of

Division B).”

A-4.1.8.15.(3) Ductile Diaphragms. Information on the design of struts, collectors, chords and connections for ductile

diaphragms can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

A-4.1.8.15.(4) Influence of Dynamic Diaphragm In-plane Response.

Clause 4.1.8.15.(4)(a)

In lieu of carrying out a special study as stated in Subclause4.1.8.15.(4)(a)(iii), the anticipated total deformation demand on the

vertical elements of the SFRS, including inelastic deformations, may be taken as equal to R

o

R

d

(Δ

B

+ Δ

D

) - R

o

Δ

D

, i.e., the difference

between the total storey drift including inelastic deformation effects and diaphragm deformations, R

o

R

d

(Δ

B

+ Δ

D

), and the

diaphragm deformation under R

o

times the seismic load, where R

o

may be replaced by the actual overstrength of the SFRS vertical

elements. The design engineer must verify that the SFRS vertical elements have sufficient deformation capacity to accommodate

the computed deformation demand. If the vertical elements of the SFRS do not have sufficient deformation capacity, the design

forces for the vertical elements of the SFRS must be magnified by R

d

(1 + Δ

D

/Δ

B

)/(R

d

+ ΔD/ΔB). The calculation of the magnified

design forces is iterative as the Δ

D

/Δ

B

ratio may change when using higher design forces for the vertical elements of the SFRS.

Reducing the Δ

D

/Δ

B

ratio by increasing the stiffness of the roof diaphragm relative to that of the vertical elements of the SFRS may

be considered to reduce the deformation demand on the vertical elements of the SFRS. Additional information can be found in

the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of

Division B).”

Clause 4.1.8.15.(4)(b)

The dynamic response of the diaphragm with the vertical elements of the SFRS under seismic excitation involves several modes of

vibration that affect both the amplitude and distribution of in-plane shears and bending moments in the roof diaphragm.

The shape of the fundamental mode of vibration resembles the deflected shape of the diaphragm/vertical SFRS elements under a

distributed lateral load while higher modes involve increasing numbers of zero crossings of the deflected shapes along the length of

the diaphragm, similar to the modes of a simply supported beam with distributed mass. Shears and bending moments therefore

deviate from the values obtained from the equivalent static force procedure essentially due to higher mode response. Modal

contributions to shears and bending moments in the diaphragms can be obtained from a Linear Dynamic Analysis.

The contribution from the higher modes is generally more pronounced when the ΔD/ΔB ratio, the period in the first mode, or

the ratio S

a

(0.2)/S

a

(2.0) is increased. It also increases when the SFRS is designed with a higher R

d

factor as inelastic deformations

of the vertical elements of the SFRS attenuate the first mode response. Methods to take into account the inelastic higher mode

effects on in-plane diaphragm shears and moments are discussed in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the

“User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.15.(5) Discontinuities. Information on elements supporting discontinuities can be found in the Commentary

A-4.1.8.15.(6) Vertical Variations in R

d

R

o

. Information on elements of the SFRS below the variation in R

d

R

o

can be found

in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of

DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.15.(7) Concurrent Yielding. Information on the effects of concurrent yielding of elements can be found in the

A-4.1.8.15.(8) Design Force in Elements. Information on the design force in elements can be found in the Commentary

A-4.1.8.16.(1) Foundation Movement. The bearing stress distribution in soil or rock that is used to determine the factored

overturning resistance of the foundation influences the rotation of the foundation, which occurs due to the forces applied by the SFRS.

Generally, all foundations will rotate on soil or rock. In particular, footings (a type of foundation unit) often undergo uplift at one end,

and if the factored bearing stress at the other end is only over a short length, then the uplift and rotation of the footing can be

significant. CSAA23.3, “Design of Concrete Structures,” contains design requirements for footings that rotate and uplift; see also the

Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B)”

for guidance and methods to account for foundation movement.

A-4.1.8.16.(2) Actual Lateral Load Capacity of the SFRS. The actual lateral load capacity of the SFRS includes the

effects of member overstrengths similar to those used to determine the R

o

factors. The applicable CSAdesign standards include

requirements on calculating the overstrengths and capacities, which may be based on the members’ nominal or probable resistance.

The actual capacities are larger than the factored loads and factored resistances and, in many cases, can be significantly larger.

Note that the foundations designed to develop the capacity of the SFRS will undergo movements and Sentence4.1.8.16.(1)

still applies.

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

A-4.1.8.16.(4) Overturning Resistance of the Foundation. For the special case where the foundation is a footing, and

where it and the attached SFRS are not constrained against rotation, it is permitted, with certain limitations, to size the footing to have

a factored overturning resistance less than the overturning capacity of the supported SFRS. This approach results in a smaller footing,

increased footing rotations, increased drifts in the structure, and increased soil stresses, all of which are over and above those associated

with footings sized to have a factored overturning resistance equal to or greater than the overturning capacity of the SFRS. The footing

itself must have a factored resistance capable of developing the required soil or rock reactions. An example of a footing and SFRS that

are not constrained against rotation is an SFRS on a footing near the ground surface such that it can rotate freely and is attached to a

gravity-load-resisting system (non-SFRS) that is laterally flexible and provides little lateral resistance. For this case, the SFRS is usually

analyzed on its own and the resulting displacements are imposed on the non-SFRS elements in order to assess the effects on them.

Cases where the footing and SFRS are attached to a system that has significant lateral stiffness require careful analysis and engineering

judgement, or the footing can be capacity-designed.

Limiting the overturning moment on the foundation and the R

d

R

o

value provides some control on the increase in lateral displacement,

drift and stress in the soil or rock. Cases that exceed these limits require special study.

For the common case where the SFRS and/or the footing are constrained in some way against rotation, the footing’s factored resistance

must be equal to or greater than the capacity of the supported SFRS. An example of an SFRS constrained against freely rotating with

the footing is an SFRS attached to adjacent foundation walls by below-grade diaphragms. Examples of footings constrained against free

rotation are footings that use soil anchors to resist overturning, footings on piles, and raft foundations. Notethat Sentence4.1.8.16.(1)

still applies.

See CSAA23.3, “Design of Concrete Structures,” and the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide –

NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.16.(6)(a) Interconnection of Foundation Elements. Information on the interconnection of piles or pile caps,

drilled piers, and caissons can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015,

Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.16.(7) Earthquake Lateral Pressures from Backfill or Natural Ground. Information on methods of

computing the seismic lateral pressures from backfill or natural ground can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic

Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.16.(8)(a) Cyclic Inelastic Behaviour of Foundation Elements. Information on the cyclic inelastic behaviour

of piles or pile caps, drilled piers, and caissons can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s

Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.1.8.16.(9) Alternative Foundation Ties. Alternative methods of tying foundations together, such as a properly

reinforced floor slab capable of resisting the required tension and compression forces, may be used. Passive soil pressure against buried

pile caps may not be used to resist these forces.

A-4.1.8.16.(10) Liquefaction. Information on liquefaction can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic

Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.17.(1) Slope Stability. Information on slope instability can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic

Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.18. Elements of Structures, Non-structural Components and Equipment. Information on the

requirements of Article4.1.8.18. can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide –

NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-Table 4.1.8.18. Non-structural Components and Equipment. The failure or detachment of non-structural

components and equipment during an earthquake can present a major threat to life safety. The design requirements presented in

Article4.1.8.18. are intended to ensure that such components and their connections to the building will retain their integrity during

strong ground shaking. Guidelines for the seismic risk reduction of such components are given in CAN/CSA-S832, “Seismic Risk

Reduction of Operational and Functional Components (OFCs) of Buildings.”

A-4.1.8.18.(14) Storage Racks. Free-standing steel pallet storage racks contain only materials typically loaded by forklift.

They are designed to store loaded pallets, however in some cases, the stored material does not sit on a pallet. There is no occupancy

within the racks. Information on racks can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide –

NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

Division B: Acceptable Solutions Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design

British Columbia Building Code 2018 Revision 2.01 Division B

A-4.1.8.18.(15) and (16)(c) Glass Fallout and Failure. Information on glass fallout and testing for glass fallout can be

found in AAMA 501.6, “Recommended Dynamic Test Method For Determining The Seismic Drift Causing Glass Fallout From

A Wall System.” Every surface other than inaccessible areas or areas where occupancy is prevented or access is prevented should be

considered a “walking surface.” Additional information can be found in ASCE/SEI 7, “Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and

Other Structures,” in FEMA P-750, “NEHRP Recommended Seismic Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures,” and

FEMA 450-1, “NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures,”and related

commentaries, and in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.19.(2) Design Review. It is strongly recommended that a design review of the seismically isolated structure and its

isolation system be carried out by an independent team of professional engineers and geoscientists experienced in seismic analysis

methods and the theory and application of seismic isolation. The design review should include, but not be limited to, the following:

a) site-specific spectra,

b) ground motion time histories,

c) modeling and analyses,

d) testing program and results, and

e) final design of all structural framing elements and isolation system components.

A-4.1.8.19.(3)(a) Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis. Three-dimensional Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis is a complex process

requiring special expertise. Guidance on Non-linear Dynamic Analysis can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic

Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.19.(4) Ground Motion Time Histories. Ground motion time histories and their horizontal and vertical

components must be appropriately selected and scaled according to accepted practice. Further information on ground motion time

histories can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.21.(2) Design Review. It is strongly recommended that a design review of the structure and the supplementary

energy dissipation system be carried out by an independent team of professional engineers and geoscientists experienced in seismic

analysis methods and the theory and application of supplementary energy dissipation. The design review should include, but not be

limited to, the following:

a) ground motion time histories,

b) modeling and analyses,

c) testing program and results, and

d) final design of all structural framing elements and supplemental energy dissipation system components.

A-4.1.8.21.(4)(a) Non-linear Dynamic Analysis. Three-dimensional Non-linear Dynamic Analysis is a complex process

requiring special expertise. Guidance on Non-linear Dynamic Analysis can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic

Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.1.8.21.(5) Ground Motion Time Histories. Ground motion time histories and their horizontal and vertical

components must be appropriately selected and scaled according to accepted practice. Further information on ground motion time

histories can be found in the Commentary entitled Design for Seismic Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.2.2.1.(1) Subsurface Investigation. Where acceptable information on subsurface conditions already exists, the

investigation may not require further physical subsurface exploration or testing.

A-4.2.2.3.(1) Responsibilities of the Designer as Defined in Part 4. In certain situations, such as when the design is

highly technical, it may be necessary for the “other suitably qualified person” to be someone responsible to the designer. In such cases

the authority having jurisdiction may wish to order that the review be done by the designer.

A-4.2.4.1.(1) Innovative Designs. It is important that innovative approaches to foundation design be carried out by a person

especially qualified in the specific method applied and that the design provide a level of safety and performance at least equivalent to

that provided for or implicit in the design carried out by the methods referred to in Part4. Provision must be made for monitoring the

subsequent performance of such structures so that the long-term sufficiency of the design can be evaluated.

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

A-4.2.4.1.(3) Ultimate Limit States for Foundations. Information on ultimate limit states for foundations, including

terminology and resistance factors, can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015,

Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.2.4.1.(5) Design of Foundations for Differential Movements. Information on the design of foundations for

differential movements can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.2.4.4.(1) Depth of Foundations. When adfreezing has occurred and subsequent freezing results in soil expansion

beneath this area, the resulting uplift effect is sometimes referred to as frost jacking.

A heated building that is insulated to prevent heat loss through the foundation walls should be considered as an unheated structure

unless the effect of the insulation is taken into account in determining the maximum depth of frost penetration.

A-4.2.5.1.(1) Excavations. Information on excavations can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations in the “User’s

Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.2.6.1.(1) Shallow Foundations. Information on shallow foundations can be found in the Commentary entitled

Foundations in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.2.7.1.(1) Deep Foundation Units. A deep foundation unit can be pre-manufactured or cast-in-place; it can be driven,

jacked, jetted, screwed, bored or excavated; it can be of wood, concrete or steel or a combination thereof.

A-4.2.7.2.(1) Deep Foundations. Information on deep foundations can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations

in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.2.7.2.(2) Load Testing of Piles. ASTM D 1143/D 1143M, “Deep Foundations Under Static Axial Compressive Load,”

defines routine load test procedures that have been extensively used.

A-4.3.3.1.(1) Precast Concrete. CSAA23.3, “Design of Concrete Structures,” requires precast concrete members to conform

to CSAA23.4, “Precast Concrete – Materials and Construction.”

A-4.3.4.1.(1) Welded Construction. Qualification for fabricators and erectors of welded construction is found in

Clause24.3 of CSAS16, “Design of Steel Structures.”

A-4.3.4.2.(1) Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Members. There is currently no Canadian standard for the design of

cold-formed stainless steel structural members. As an interim measure, design may be carried out using the limit states design

provisions of ASCE/SEI 8, “Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members,” except that load factors, load combinations

and load combination factors shall be in accordance with Subsection4.1.3.

A-4.3.6.1.(1) Design Basis for Glass. The load factors in Tables4.1.3.2.-A and4.1.3.2.-B must be applied to the adjusted

wind load before designing in accordance with the referenced standard. Additional information is given in the Commentary entitled

Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.4.2.1.(1) Design Basis for Parking Structures and Repair Garages. See the Commentary entitled Live Loads in

the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

Notes to Part 4 – Structural Design Division B: Acceptable Solutions

Division B Revision 2.01 British Columbia Building Code 2018

A-4.2.4.1.(3) Ultimate Limit States for Foundations. Information on ultimate limit states for foundations, including

terminology and resistance factors, can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015,

Structural Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.2.4.1.(5) Design of Foundations for Differential Movements. Information on the design of foundations for

differential movements can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural

Commentaries (Part4 of DivisionB).”

A-4.2.4.4.(1) Depth of Foundations. When adfreezing has occurred and subsequent freezing results in soil expansion

beneath this area, the resulting uplift effect is sometimes referred to as frost jacking.

A heated building that is insulated to prevent heat loss through the foundation walls should be considered as an unheated structure

unless the effect of the insulation is taken into account in determining the maximum depth of frost penetration.

A-4.2.5.1.(1) Excavations. Information on excavations can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations in the “User’s

Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.2.6.1.(1) Shallow Foundations. Information on shallow foundations can be found in the Commentary entitled

Foundations in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.2.7.1.(1) Deep Foundation Units. A deep foundation unit can be pre-manufactured or cast-in-place; it can be driven,

jacked, jetted, screwed, bored or excavated; it can be of wood, concrete or steel or a combination thereof.

A-4.2.7.2.(1) Deep Foundations. Information on deep foundations can be found in the Commentary entitled Foundations

in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.2.7.2.(2) Load Testing of Piles. ASTM D 1143/D 1143M, “Deep Foundations Under Static Axial Compressive Load,”

defines routine load test procedures that have been extensively used.

A-4.3.3.1.(1) Precast Concrete. CSAA23.3, “Design of Concrete Structures,” requires precast concrete members to conform

to CSAA23.4, “Precast Concrete – Materials and Construction.”

A-4.3.4.1.(1) Welded Construction. Qualification for fabricators and erectors of welded construction is found in

Clause24.3 of CSAS16, “Design of Steel Structures.”

A-4.3.4.2.(1) Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Members. There is currently no Canadian standard for the design of

cold-formed stainless steel structural members. As an interim measure, design may be carried out using the limit states design

provisions of ASCE/SEI 8, “Design of Cold-Formed Stainless Steel Structural Members,” except that load factors, load combinations

and load combination factors shall be in accordance with Subsection4.1.3.

A-4.3.6.1.(1) Design Basis for Glass. The load factors in Tables4.1.3.2.-A and4.1.3.2.-B must be applied to the adjusted

wind load before designing in accordance with the referenced standard. Additional information is given in the Commentary entitled

Wind Load and Effects in the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”

A-4.4.2.1.(1) Design Basis for Parking Structures and Repair Garages. See the Commentary entitled Live Loads in

the “User’s Guide – NBC2015, Structural Commentaries (Part4 of Division B).”